To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Design and optimization of natural gas liquefaction process by utilizing gas pipeline pressure energy. Tianbiao He. Yonglin Ju. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier.
The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited.
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article e. He, Y. At city gate stations the gas pressure is regulated through a set of pressure reducing processes, Accepted 18 March which are normally realized by a throttling device and waste much pressure energy. In this paper, a novel Available online 2 April natural gas expansion liquefaction process is designed and simulated by Aspen HYSYS to utilize the pressure energy.
The unit energy consumption and liquefaction rate are selected as the objective func- Keywords: tions and are optimized with several key variables of the process. Furthermore, the exergy losses of Pressure energy Natural gas different equipment in the process are evaluated and analyzed in details. All rights reserved. Kirillov et al. The high- technology for small-scale peak-shaving LNG plant.
Lun et al. Lentransgaz  developed different applications.ISO specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design, materials, construction, testing, operation, maintenance and abandonment of pipeline systems used for transportation in the petroleum and natural gas industries.
It applies to pipeline systems on-land and offshore, connecting wells, production plants, process plants, refineries and storage facilities, including any section of a pipeline constructed within the boundaries of such facilities for the purpose of its connection.
The extent of pipeline systems covered by ISO is illustrated in Figure 1. ISO applies to rigid, metallic pipelines. It is not applicable for flexible pipelines or those constructed from other materials, such as glass-reinforced plastics.
ISO is applicable to all new pipeline systems and can be applied to modifications made to existing ones. It is not intended that it applies retroactively to existing pipeline systems. It describes the functional requirements of pipeline systems and provides a basis for their safe design, construction, testing, operation, maintenance and abandonment.
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Store Standards catalogue ICS 75 English French.The American Pageant" has long enjoyed a reputation as one of the most accessible, popular, and effective textbooks in the field of American history. Its authors, Thomas A. Bailey and David M. Kennedy, now joined by Lizabeth Cohen, have sustained and enhanced the key features that strongly distinguish the "Pageant" from other American history textbooks and make it both appealing and useful to countless students: clarity, concreteness, a consistent chronological narrative, strong emphasis on major themes, avoidance of clutter, access to a variety of interpretive perspectives, and a colorful writing style leavened, as appropriate, with wit.
Bolero Ozon. Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals. John L. Industry expert John Kennedy details the oil and gas pipeline operation industry in this complete text. Contents: Pipeline industry overview Types of pipelines Pipe manufacture and coating Fundamentals of pipeline design Pumps and compressors Prime movers Construction practices and equipment Welding techniques and equipment Operation and control Metering and storage Maintenance and repair Inspection and rehabilitation Pipeline regulation Safety and environmental protection Tommorrow's technology.
History of pipelines 3 Key industry statistics. Oil pipelines 28 Products pipelines. Pipe manufacture 50 Pipe coating.
Pipeline design 71 Twophase pipeline design Landpipeline construction Arctic pipeline construction Station design and Operation Compressor application and design. Choosing the type of driver Gasturbines. GriggN. GrievinkJ.The U. The pipeline network has about 3 million miles of mainline and other pipelines that link natural gas production areas and storage facilities with consumers.
Inthis natural gas transportation network delivered nearly 28 trillion cubic feet Tcf of natural gas to about 75 million customers. Transporting natural gas from production areas to consumers involves a series of steps that are generally carried out in the following order:.
Click to enlarge. About half of the existing mainline natural gas transmission network and a large portion of the local distribution network were installed in the s and s because consumer demand for natural gas more than doubled following World War II. The distribution network has continued to expand to provide natural gas service to new commercial facilities and housing developments. Natural gas prices increased substantially between and Higher prices gave natural gas producers an incentive to expand development of existing fields and to begin exploration of previously undeveloped natural gas fields.
Advances in drilling and production techniques led to increases in production from shale and other tight geologic formations. These increases in production contributed to general declines in natural gas prices sincewhich in turn contributed to increases in demand for natural gas for electricity generation and by industry. Consequently, new transmission pipelines were constructed and others are being built to link the expanded and new production sources to more consumers around the country, most notably in the Northeast.
Natural gas explained Natural gas pipelines. What is energy? Units and calculators. Use of energy. Energy and the environment. Also in What is energy? Forms of energy Sources of energy Laws of energy.
Understanding Natural Gas Compressor Stations
Also in Units and calculators explained Units and calculators Energy conversion calculators British thermal units Btu Degree days. Also in U. Also in Use of energy explained Use of energy Energy use in industry Energy use for transportation Energy use in homes Energy use in commercial buildings Energy efficiency and conservation. Also in Energy and the environment explained Energy and the environment Greenhouse gases Greenhouse gases and the climate Where greenhouse gases come from Outlook for future emissions Recycling and energy.
Nonrenewable sources. Oil and petroleum products. Diesel fuel. Heating oil. Also in Oil and petroleum products explained Oil and petroleum products Refining crude oil Where our oil comes from Imports and exports Offshore oil and gas Use of oil Prices and outlook Oil and the environment. Also in Gasoline explained Gasoline Octane in depth Where our gasoline comes from Use of gasoline Prices and outlook Factors affecting gasoline prices Regional price differences Price fluctuations History of gasoline Gasoline and the environment.
Also in Diesel fuel explained Diesel fuel Where our diesel comes from Use of diesel Prices and outlook Factors affecting diesel prices Diesel fuel surcharges Diesel and the environment.
Also in Heating oil explained Heating oil Where our heating oil comes from Use of heating oil Prices and outlook Factors affecting heating oil prices. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids. Natural gas. Also in Hydrocarbon gas liquids explained Hydrocarbon gas liquids Where do hydrocarbon gas liquids come from?
Transporting and storing Uses of hydrocarbon gas liquids Imports and exports Prices. Also in Natural gas explained Natural gas Delivery and storage Natural gas pipelines Liquefied natural gas Where our natural gas comes from Imports and exports How much gas is left Use of natural gas Prices Factors affecting natural gas prices Natural gas and the environment Customer choice programs.
Also in Coal explained Coal Mining and transportation Where our coal comes from Imports and exports How much coal is left Use of coal Prices and outlook Coal and the environment. Renewable sources. Renewable energy. Biofuels: Ethanol and Biodiesel.Ensure use of the most current version of this document by searching British Standards Online at bsonline. General 1. Design 2. Materials 3. Corrosion protection 4. Terminals and intermediate stations 5. Construction 6.
Quality assurance 7. Pressure testing 8. Commissioning 9. BS is a complete revision of all five Parts of CP BS is to be published in four Parts as follows. Part 1: Pipelines on land: general; Part 2: Pipelines on land: design, construction and installation; Part 3: Pipelines subsea: design, construction and installation; Part 4: Pipelines on land and subsea: operations and maintenance.
Part 1 which supersedes CP contains general information which is relevant to a variety of pipelines and a variety of transported materials.
It deals with those aspects of pipeline development which affect the owner and occupier of land through which the pipeline passes. Part 2 is divided into several Sections which will be published as separate documents as follows: Section 2. Each Section will contain information on the design, construction and installation of a pipeline in the particular material. These Sections will supersede the existing Parts 2, 3, 4 and 5 of CP Part 3 will include the general information relevant to subsea pipelines and the particular information on design, construction and installation of a pipeline in specific materials.
Part 4 will contain advice on the operation and maintenance of pipelines and will probably be in sections related to conveyed material.
This Section of BS deals with oil, gas and other substances which are hazardous by nature of being explosive, flammable, toxic or reactive, generally classified as category B, category C and category D substances see 2.
The Institutions guidance is specific to 1st and 2nd family gases and can be supported by experimental data.Recommended practices can be purchased or read online. The U. Department of Transportation DOT requires pipeline operators to conduct public awareness programs and measure their effectiveness every four years. API RPPublic Awareness Programs for Pipeline Operators, establishes guidelines for operators on development, implementation, and evaluation of public awareness programs in an effort to raise the effectiveness of public awareness programs throughout the industry.
One way to measure their effectiveness every four years is through a joint survey. The American Petroleum Institute has issued guidance to U. The purpose of the guidelines, known as Recommended Practice or Public Awareness Programs for Pipeline Operators, is to reduce pipeline accidents, which are often attributable to digging by homeowners, contractors, and farmers.
API RP provides guidance in developing or maintaining a safety management system. The list below highlights the elements of the system detailed in the RP, all of which are essential for a successful program:. API RP is an industry consensus document that provides a risk-based approach to managing a leak detection program, including developing a leak detection culture and strategy, selecting the appropriate leak detection system, and monitoring leak detection program performance.
This RP also identifies Control Center procedures, training, and the roles and responsibilities of Control Center personnel, as well as identifying proper testing of equipment and alarms.
API RP provides support to pipeline operators in appropriately assessing and managing cracking defects. Focus is given to selecting the most applicable assessment method considering the pipeline condition and the cracking features. Sections are also provided to detail the actions needed based on in-line inspection results received and to determine proper hydrostatic pressure test parameters.
File Size: 1. Skip to main content. Energy Primers What is Fracking? Why is fracking for natural gas important?
What chemicals are used in fracking? What are alternatives to make fracking less impactful? Is that true? How much water does hydraulic fracturing use? How is groundwater protected during hydraulic fracturing? Does fracking cause flaming water faucets?
How many jobs has the oil and natural gas industry created? Does hydraulic fracturing cause earthquakes? What are fracking myths?
Natural gas is alternative energy What are the claims of anti-fracking activists?Based on over pages of standards and regulations, the design for each pipeline covers every aspect from routing, materials, pipe construction, laying the pipeline, safety and pipeline integrity.
Pipeline design begins with a study of the proposed route, including full environmental and engineering assessments:. Designers draft detailed schematics based on over pages of standards:. Pipelines are inspected using X-ray technology and hydrostatic testing. This technician is inspecting the pipe from the inside! During construction, huge valves are placed along the pipelines at regular intervals so the flow can be shut off in the event of a spill:. After construction, the land is remediated.
Aside from above-ground facilities at intervals along the pipe, there is almost no sign that the land has been disturbed:. Inthese energy highways moved approximately 1. We deliver the energy you need every day. Economy Environment Operations Regulations Safety. Step-by-step: a look at pipeline design. BlogOperationsRegulationsSafety. Pipelines: Critical energy infrastructure in the pandemic crisis. New household projects to take your mind off the lockdown?
Safety first. Working from home? Explore CEPA. Get Connected Stay up to date on pipeline news and information.